Course Listing

Italian Fall 2020

Italian (ITAL) Courses – Taught in Italian

ITAL 1020 – Elementary Italian II

 

Please check SIS for sections, dates, times, locations, and instructors.

Elementary Italian II is the second class in the four-course sequence that is necessary to complete the foreign language requirement. In this course, students will learn to narrate in all tenses of the indicative, express opinions, make hypotheses, and give orders. They will improve their writing skills by producing a number of original texts, including blog posts, essays, and articles. Students will also develop their ability to understand spoken Italian by listening to songs, commercials, and movie clips, and they will read and study song lyrics, newspaper headlines, poems, and some short stories. Students of Elementary Italian II will also have many occasions to learn more about life in contemporary Italy as they study the country’s language.

60% of this course will take place face to face during regularly scheduled class meetings on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, while 40% of the work must be completed online both through the Connect website and the students’ personal e-Portfolios.

Much like learning to play a sport or a musical instrument, studying a foreign language requires constant practice. Therefore, all course activities will be conducted in Italian.

ITAL 2020 – Intermediate Italian II

Please check SIS for sections, dates, times, locations, and instructors.

ITAL 2020 Intermediate Italian II is the fourth class in the four-course sequence which fulfills the language requirement. In this course, students will further develop their listening, speaking, reading and writing skills as well as deepen their cultural literacy in Italian. You will accomplish these goals with the guidance of your instructor, through review of grammar, short readings, compositions, and listening and speaking activities. Students will also have the opportunity to listen to songs, comment on works of art, watch commercials and short films, read and write newspaper articles, analyze how the Italian language reflects the movement towards gender parity, and meet natives of Italy in your quest to become more confident and competent users of the Italian language.

Much like learning to play a sport or a musical instrument, studying a foreign language requires constant practice. Therefore, all course activities will be conducted in Italian.

ITAL 3110 – Italian Medieval and Renaissance Masterpieces with Deborah Parker

Please check SIS for times and locations

As the plague swept through Italy in the mid-1300s, three young men and seven young women from Florence escaped the city to the countryside, where they spent 10 days telling stories.  So begins Giovanni Boccaccio’s Decameron, one of the many masterpieces that we will explore in this course.  ITAL 3110 focuses on foundational works of Italian literature, art, architecture, and music in their historical and cultural context and to relate them to contemporary issues. We will examine some of the most extraordinary personalities of an age of luminaries, among them, Dante, Petrarch, Boccaccio, Castiglione, Machiavelli, Giotto, Botticelli, Brunelleschi, Botticelli, Leonardo da Vinci, and Michelangelo.  Prerequisite: ITAL 2010.

Italian Fall 2020

Italian in Translation (ITTR) Courses – Taught in English

ITTR 3685 -  Italy on Screen:  Sex, Gender and Racial Identities in the Glocal Context with Francesca Calamita

  • Section 001 MW 3:30pm-4:45pm NAU 241

Counts as elective to major/minor in Women, Gender and Sexuality

This course considers representations of sex, gender and racial identities in Italian films, television, advertisements and other forms of visual culture. With a focus on the contemporary Italian context, students will explore issues of intersectionality from a global perspective. An intersectional feminist approach will frame class discussion, where, Italian society and its culture will be read through a perspective that emphasizes the interconnectedness between gender, race, sexual orientation, religion, disability, social class and immigration status, among other layers of identity. Lectures will offer a close reading of both critically acclaimed and more mainstream works, trying to answer the following question: what can Italian cinema, television and advertising tell us about diversity and inclusion in the worldwide context?

Portuguese Fall 2020

Portuguese in Translation (POTR) Courses – Taught in English

POTR 4559—Global South: Brazilian Soccer in a Global Context with Eli Carter

Tuesday 4:00 to 6:30 pm New Cabell 211 

Brazilian "futebol" or soccer has long been celebrated throughout the world for its myriad stars and singular style of play. Providing a broad historical overview of the development of soccer in Brazil, the objective of this course is to explore cultural and socio-political issues raised by the sport, all while connecting these to broader processes of globalization beginning in the early 1990s.

 

Portuguese Fall 2020

Portuguese (PORT) Courses – Taught in Portuguese

PORT 1110 – Beginning Intensive Portuguese with Lilian Feitosa

Check SIS for sections, dates, times, locations, and instructors

Prerequisite: Completion of FREN 2020 or SPAN 2020, or instructor permission.

Introduces speaking, understanding, reading and writing Portuguese, especially as used in Brazil. Five class hours and one laboratory hour. Followed by PORT 2120. 

PORT 3010 – Advanced Grammar, Conversation and Composition with Lilian Feitosa

Check SIS for sections, dates, times, locations, and instructors

Studies advanced grammar through analysis of written and audiovisual texts; includes extensive practice in composition and topical conversation.

Spanish Fall 2020

Spanish (SPAN) Courses – Taught in Spanish

SPAN 1060 – Accelerated Elementary Spanish

Check SIS for sections, dates, times, locations, and instructors

Prerequisites: Placement score of 420-510 on the SAT II Exam or a score of 0-325 on the UVA Placement Exam. Students may not self-place in a language course. All students will submit proof of placement by (August 31, 2018).

Accelerated Elementary Spanish a four-credit accelerated introductory level hybrid course designed to provide a thorough foundation in all the language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. This is a technology-enhanced language course in which students will complete online activities with Connect on Tuesdays and Thursdays instead of attending class all five days of the week.  Students should expect an average of 1-2 hours of online homework 5 days a week, plus an extra hour of work that substitutes for class time each on Tuesday/ Thursday. This is a flipped class, which means that students will learn grammar and vocabulary at home, and class time will be devoted to meaningful, authentic, and interactive practice. Class is conducted in Spanish only.

SPAN 2010 – Intermediate Spanish 

Please check SIS for sections, dates, times, locations, and instructors.

Prerequisites: SPAN 1020, SPAN 1060, or SAT II score of 520-590, or Placement Test score of 326-409. Students may not self-place in a language course.  All students will submit proof of placement by (August 30, 2018 for TuTh Courses and August 31, 2018 for MWF Courses).

Intermediate Spanish is a three-credit intermediate level course, the third course in a four-course sequence, which fulfills the language requirement.  The goal of this course is to bridge the gap between elementary and advanced levels in the further development of listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills. This is a flipped class, which means that students will learn grammar and vocabulary at home, and class time will be devoted to meaningful, authentic, and interactive practice. Class is conducted in Spanish only.

SPAN 2020 – Advanced Intermediate Spanish 

Check SIS for sections, dates, times, locations, and instructors

Prerequisites: Spanish 2010, SAT II Test score of 600-640, or UVA Placement Test score of 410-535. Students may not self-place in a language course. All students will submit proof of placement by (August 30, 2018 for TuTh Courses and August 31, 2018 for MWF Courses).

Advanced Intermediate Spanish is a three credit intermediate level course, the fourth course in a four-course sequence which fulfills the language requirement. The goal of this course is to bridge the gap between elementary and advanced levels in the further development of listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills. This is a flipped class, which means that students will learn grammar and vocabulary at home, and class time will be devoted to meaningful, authentic, and interactive practice. Class is conducted in Spanish only.

SPAN 3000 – Phonetics with Omar Velázquez-Mendoza

MoWe 3:30-4:45PM in New CAB 207

Prerequisite: SPAN 3010 or equivalent.

Spanish Phonetics provides an introduction to the sound system of both Peninsular and Latin American Spanish. Class discussions focus on how the sounds of Spanish are produced from an articulatory point of view, and how these sounds are organized and represented in the linguistic competence of their speakers. When appropriate, comparisons will be made between Spanish and English or Spanish and other (Romance and non-Romance) languages. This course seeks to improve the student's pronunciation.

SPAN 3010 – Grammar and Composition I 

Check SIS for sections, dates, times, locations, and instructors

Prerequisite: SPAN 2020 (or equivalent); or UVA placement test score of 536-650; or AP score of 4; or SAT II score of 641-700; or IB Spanish (High) score of 7.

This course seeks to develop advanced literacy in Spanish through extensive reading, writing, analysis, and discussion of authentic literary texts and videos. Emphasis is placed on how grammatical forms codify meaning and how grammar and meaning interact to construct the language and textual structure expected in the following academic genres: the critical review, the persuasive essay, and the research paper.

NEW SPAN COURSE SEQUENCE IN THE CIVIC & COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT PROGRAM

SPAN 3020-002: Grammar and Composition II- Writing for Social Justice and Change with Esther Poveda

Section 002- MWF 10:00 am- 10:50 am

Have you ever wondered what kinds of change could you enact with more proficient Spanish writing skills? In this section of SPAN 3020, you will have the opportunity to grapple with advanced grammatical and writing skills while you read and discuss selected works by representative Latin American authors that have used writing as a tool for social justice and change, and by participating in a community engagement project. In this course, in addition to completing 15-18 hours of volunteer work with a local organization in the fields of immigration and education, health, or social work, you will deliberately use advanced grammatical forms to construct meaning and will produce texts in which grammar and meaning interact to lead to effective writing in Spanish.

SPRING 2021 (Meeting days/time TBA)

SPAN 3030: Cultural Conversations- Sí se puede: Community Engagement in Spanish Speaking Charlottesville 

SPAN 3030: Cultural Conversation- Sí se puede: Community Engagement in Spanish-Speaking Charlottesville is the continuation of SPAN 3020-001: Grammar and Composition II- Writing for Social Justice and Change. It is Spanish conversation course on the history, and the experiences of the Spanish-speaking population in the USA. In this course, students will continue the community engagement projects that they initiated in the Fall. In class, we will engage in an exploration of the history, contributions, and cultural productions of Spanish-speaking communities and individuals in the USA through a variety of documents (written and oral), and through conversations with leaders in our Latino Community. Throughout the semester, we will also reflect on how language learning is a rewarding and continuous process that allows us to better understand ourselves, to communicate with others, and to construct a more tolerant, and fair world around us.

Both courses will be conducted in Spanish, and the civic & community engagement projects will allow students to use their Spanish with the Charlottesville community.

Please note that, as part of the UVA Civic & Community Engagement Program, this is a two-semester course; therefore, students are required to take both courses in the sequence articulated above.

For any questions or further information please contact Prof. Esther Poveda Moreno at mp8yk@virginia.edu.

 

SPAN 3030 – Cultural Conversations

Check SIS for sections, dates, times, locations, and instructors

Prerequisite: SPAN3010 or the equivalent level of Spanish, in which case students will need to speak with the instructor ahead of time for permission to take the course.

Conversation course devoted to different aspects of Spanish, Spanish American, or Latino culture. Student-led discussion of materials ranging from films and music videos to radio programs, newspapers, and the Internet.   

SPAN 3040 – Business Spanish

  • Section 001 T/TH 9:30 am to 10:45 am New Cabell 364 with Paula Sprague
  • Section 002 MWF 2:00 pm to 2:50 pm New Cabell 407 with Esther Poveda
  • Section 004MWF 12:00 pm to 12:50 pm New Cabell 291 with Esther Poveda

SPAN 3040 is a Language for the Professions course intended for students with interest in Business and Economy related fields. Upon completion of this course, students will have acquired the vocabulary and the intercultural competence that will allow them to comfortably and successfully participate in professional settings in Spanish. Since SPAN 3040 is a Language for the Professions course, international students that are native speakers of Spanish are ineligible to take the class.

 

SPAN 3050 – Spanish for Medical Professionals with Alicia Lopez Operé

  • See SIS for Times and Location

Prerequisite: SPAN 3010 or departmental placement

This course is designed for students planning to work in the health care field and who want to develop fundamental written and oral skills and vocabulary for the assessment of Spanish speaking patients in a variety of settings. Students will gain familiarity with non-technical and semi-technical functional vocabulary, along with idiomatic expressions and situational phrases that are used in medical Spanish.

 

SPAN 3420-001 Survey of Colonial Literature with Allison Bigelow

TuTh 9:30-10:45

¿Qué es la literatura colonial en América, la así llamada cuarta parte del mundo? En este curso introductorio, analizaremos la diversidad literaria y cultural de la época colonial a través de conversaciones en la sala de clase y trabajos escritos. Las metas del curso abordan la explicación de textos literarios con ideas creativas y vocabulario critico y la colaboración con sus compañeras y compañeros en los trabajos orales y escritos.

Lectura: del libro _Voces de Hispanoamérica_ (ed. Raquel Chang-Rodríguez y Malva E. Filer) y en Collab

SPAN 3430 – Survey of Latin American Literature II with Gustavo Pellón

  • Section 002 10:00 am-10:50 amNew Cabell Hall 338

lunes, miércoles, y viernes          

Spanish 3300 Texts and Interpretation es un requisito para este curso.  Si eres Spanish major y estás en tu cuarto año no debes estar en un curso panorámico.  Hay algunas excepciones.  En caso de duda habla conmigo.

Este curso ofrece un panorama de la literatura hispanoamericana moderna.  El curso tiene como meta exponer al estudiante a los autores, obras, y movimientos literarios principales de Hispanoamérica desde fines del siglo XIX a nuestros días.  Vamos a leer poemas y selecciones breves de prosa en la antología Voces de  Hispanomérica y además la novela Boquitas pintadas del novelista argentino Manuel Puig.

 

SPAN 4401 – Spanish Literature of the Golden Age with Michael Gerli

  • Section 001 T/TH 12:30 pm to 1:45 pm 315

Readings from representative literary genres of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries: poetry, theater, prose narrative. The class is taught from the perspective of the `history of ideas' and emphasizes the role of the Spanish cultural, political, and religious environment of the period in adapting the major ideas of European Thought to a Hispanic context. Emphasis will also be given to theoretical literary aspects of the works we read, particularly the positioning and definition of the human subject in the texts.

 

SPAN 4402 – Don Quijote with Michael Gerli

  • Section 001 T/TH 3:30 pm to 4:45 pm New Cabell Hall 303

A detailed reading of Don Quijote from a theoretical and historical perspective in order to explore its pivotal role in the development of the modern novel. Special consideration is given to the history of ideas, especially Early Modern literary theory, particularly the commentaries on Aristotle's Poetics and the humanistic polemics on mimesis (imitation and the problem of the emulation of reality and truth in artifice), plus the history and reception of romance in Europe from the Middle Ages through the beginning of the seventeenth century.

SPAN 4500 – “Literatures of the Latin American Jungle” with Charlotte Rogers

  • Section 001 MW 2:00 pm to 3:15 pm CAB 027

 This course studies representations of the jungle in twentieth-century Latin American literature. The course will address the following questions: How has the environment shaped literature about South America, and vice versa? We will explore how the discourses of imperialism, anthropology, medicine and science shape the answers to this question.  Other elements common to these jungle novels, such as the encounter with the Other, the protagonists’ negotiation of sexuality and madness, and the enduring popularity of the jungle adventure myth will also be addressed. Texts by Quiroga, Rivera, Carpentier, Vargas Llosa, Mutis and Hatoum.

SPAN 4500 – “Transgender Studies in the Americas” with Cole Rizki

  • Section 003 T/TH 12:00 pm to 1:45 pm CAB 332

This course introduces students to transgender cultural production taking shape across the Americas. Turning to contemporary Latin American and Latinx cultural production from literary texts (novels, essays, poetry) to activist manifestos, zines, visual art, performance art, and film, this course asks the following questions: how does cultural production by transgender authors, artists, and activists illuminate and contest dominant social, cultural, and economic relationships of power across the hemisphere? As political projects, how do different area or identity configurations—“Latin America,” “Latinx,” “the Americas,” “transatlantic,” for example—inform transgender cultural production and practices? How might transgender cultural production unsettle interlocking racial, class, sexual, and gendered norms? What kinds of alternative world-making practices does our contemporary moment demand of us and how might trans studies and trans cultural production inform our response?

Course prerequisites: Must have completed SPAN 3010 and 3300, and one of the following: SPAN 3400, 3410, 3420 or 3430 or departmental consent. Some WGS coursework is useful but not required.

Span 4500 – Special Topics: Julio Cortázar with Gustavo Pellón

  • Section 004 MWF 11:00am-11:50am New Cabell Hall 338

Spanish 3300 Texts and Interpretation y por lo menos un curso panorámico de literatura (3400, 3410, 3420, 3430) son requisitos para este curso. 

En este curso estudiaremos la obra del escritor argentino Julio Cortázar con especial atención a sus cuentos, poemas, ensayos y sus traducciones de los cuentos de Edgar Allan Poe al español.

Spanish Summer 2020

Spanish (SPAN) Summer Courses – Taught in Spanish

For more information, see: https://summer.virginia.edu/

Registration starts March 31.

Summer Session II:  June 15-July 11

SPAN 1010  (1 section)

SPAN 2010  (2 sections)

SPAN 1060  (1 section meeting 9-12 and 1-4)

SPAN 1010 and SPAN 1020 will be offered in Summer Session only. These courses will not be offered in fall or spring semesters

Summer Session III:  July 13-August 7

SPAN 1020  (1 section)

SPAN 2010  (1 section)

SPAN 2020  (4 sections)

SPAN 1010 and SPAN 1020 will be offered in Summer Session only. These courses will not be offered in fall or spring semesters

The Summer Language Institute (June 15-August 7)

http://www.virginia.edu/summer/SLI/

The Spanish Summer Language Institute offers an intensive near-immersion program in which students complete beginning and intermediate levels of Spanish instruction in eight weeks - two years of coursework (SPAN 1016, 1026, 2016, and 2026) in one summer!  SLI classes meet from Monday through Friday for seven and a half hours a day with three different Spanish instructors: from 9:00-12:00, from 1:00-4:00, and from 6:00-7:30.

For more information, see:  https://summer.virginia.edu/summer-language-institute-spanish

Spanish Fall 2020

Spanish (SPAN) Courses – Taught in Spanish

SPAN 5800 – MA Survey of Colonial Literature with Allison Bigelow

Thursday, 3:30 - 6:00pm

Este curso proporciona un panorama de la literatura latinoamericana en el periodo que abarca el examen de maestría del área colonial: 1492-1700. Los textos primarios nos ayudarán a entender la complejidad cultural del periodo colonial, mientras las fuentes secundarias nos orientarán a varias preguntas abiertas y polémicas historiográficas. Al final del curso, la alumna o el alumno será capaz de analizar los textos de la lista del examen de maestría, situar varios temas claves dentro del contexto histórico-intelectual de la época y mostrar su conocimiento a través de una presentación oral, examen parcial y un proyecto final. Conforme al interés de la alumna o el alumno, el proyecto puede ser orientado a las investigaciones o a la enseñanza. Aprovechando el rol del examen en el programa de maestría, también leeremos textos que tratan de la profesionalización, abordando temas como la organización, el examen, el estrés y la vida académica.

SPAN 7850 – Caribbean Environmental Humanities with Charlotte Rogers

Wednesdays, 3:30 - 6:00pm

Why have outsiders depicted the Caribbean as a hellish site of malaria and hurricanes and also as a tourist Eden?  How do peoples of the Caribbean define their own relationship to the islands’ ecologies? This graduate level seminar considers these questions through the lens of the environmental humanities, an emerging method of study that unites humanistic inquiry with environmental science. We will survey the intertwined ecological and human histories of the archipelago from the colonial era to the twenty-first century. Topics include deforestation, the plantation system, natural resource extraction, scientific experimentation on Caribbean peoples and landscapes, and the social and ecological ramifications of tourism. The course will emphasize how artists and writers recognize and resist the legacies of environmental depredation and human exploitation in the region. Our areas of inquiry will range over literature, art, tropical medicine, the history of science, environmental activism, social justice movements and cultural studies. This class counts towards the Graduate Certificate in Environmental Humanities. Class discussions will be in English. Readings will be in Spanish, French, and English with optional translations.

SPAN 7850 – Space and Place in Hispanic Literature with Ricardo Pardon

Writing of all kinds is often used to map spaces and describe places, facilitating all sorts of and imaginative relationships between readers and locales both near and far. We might think of the way travel narrative facilitates virtual journeys, or the way a novel is said to evoke the place in which the story is set. The current moment is a propitious time to explore these issues, thanks to the so-called “spatial turn” in the human sciences, the renewed attention to space and place that has marked any number of disciplines over the course of the last few decades. In this course, we will review some of the major theoretical statements of humanistic geography and of critical geography, and consider the opportunities created by juxtaposing writing with cartography. We will also apply what we have learned to a repertoire of texts from a variety of periods in the literary and cultural history of Spain and Latin America. Registered students will be given the opportunity to provide input regarding which texts we will use.

This course is primarily intended for graduate students in the Department of Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese, but is open to all students in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. Students from outside the department will be able to read in English or other languages, and the language of instruction will be English

SPAN 8540 – Seminars: Modern Spanish Literature with Sam Amago

Tuesdays, 3:30 - 6:00pm

Drawing key examples from Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Portugal and Spain, this viewing-intensive course will explore the close connection between aesthetics and politics in Spanish- and Portuguese-language movies produced from 1950 to the present. Through film viewings, critical readings, and class discussion, we will consider how contemporary Iberian and American films have critically and creatively re-imagined the interrelated concepts of modernity, memory, and migration.

Spanish Spring 2021

Spanish (SPAN) Courses – Taught in Spanish

SPAN 4704 – Islamic Iberia with E. Michael Gerli

Tuesday and Thursday, 12:30 - 1:45pm

The course offers an introduction to Islam and a cultural history of al Andalus (Islamic Iberia) from 711 until the expulsion of the Morsicos from early modern Spain (1609-1614). It will concentrate on several major moments: The Emirate/Caliphate of Córdoba and Islamic hegemony in the peninsula; the fragmentation of the Caliphate and the cultural splendor of the taifa kingdoms in the eleventh century; the advent of Moslem fundamentalism from the Maghreb in the eleventh and twelfth centuries; the phenomenon of mudejarismo (Islamic subjects that live under Christian rule) after the Christian conquest of Seville and Córdoba in the thirteenth century; the contradictions posed by Islam in Granada, a client state of Castile during most of its history, after the decline of Islam in the rest of the peninsula (1250-1492); and the problems created by the presence of Muslim culture in a Christian state during the sixteenth-century. 

SPAN 4712 – Traverlers in Latin America with Fernando Operé

Tuesday and Thursday, 3:30 - 4:45pm

In this course of travelers and frontiers in Latin America. We will study diaries and accounts of those travelers that shape the idea that Europe had of America.  What did they see? What did they want to see? How did the describe it? What frontiers they crossed? What influence did their accounts have in the construction of continental imaginary? We will start with text by Christopher Columbus, the expeditions of Cortés to Tenochtitlan, Cabeza de Vaca in North America, Núñez de Pineda y Bascuñán in Chile, and other travelers in 17th, 18th and 19th Century: Humboldt, Darwin, Ulloa and others. We will continue with some travelers in the 20th Century: the transformative trip of Ernesto Che Guevara and Pablo Neruda.

SPAN 5300 – Medieval and Early, Early Modern Spanish Literature with E. Michael Gerli

Tuesday and Thursday, 3:30 - 6:00pm

The course deals with the “canonical” works of the Iberian Middle Ages and the early, early modern period. It seeks to provide an overview of current thinking regarding their nature and origin, while at the same time seeking to interrogate many of the prevailing assumptions and received ideas of Spanish literary historiography and, indeed, literary history itself. Works and topics to be addressed are: literacy and orality; manuscript culture, paleography, and textual transmission; the medieval Iberian lyric in its Pan-European context plus its problematic connection to Arabic muwashshaat (i.e., the kharjas); the Castilian epic, especially the Poema de Mio Cid, in relation to the Romance epic in general; clerical poetry and the rise of literacy (Berceo, the so-called mester de clerecía, and the Libro de buen amor); the institutional rise and uses of vernacular prose (Alfonso X and the discourses of cultural authority: historiography, law, and science); the advent of imaginative prose and the class interests of the aristocracy (Don Juan Manuel and El conde Lucanor); medieval quest, sentimental, and etiological romance (Libro del cavallero Zifar, Cárcel de Amor); humanistic comedy (Celestina) and courtly culture; and finally canonization itself. 

SPAN 7881 – Traverlers and Frontiers with Fernando Operé

Tuesday and Thursday, 2:00 - 3:15pm

In this course, we will study of the Latin American frontiers since the discovery of the continent. By reading theory, chronicles and diaries from different periods, we will be able to establish how the frontier, and the idea of frontier, changed over time, and along with it the concept of "self identity," as well as the concept of "the Other" beyond the frontier line. Obviously, travelers were the protagonists of the crossing of new frontiers, and their chronicles talked to us about the way they conceptualized the new territories. Readings include chronicles, and travel books from 16th to 20th Century: Colón's Diarios, Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca’s Naufragios’s; Bernal Díaz del Castillo’s Historia verdadera de la conquista de Nueva España; Lucio Mansilla’s Una excursión a los indios ranqueles; Juan León Mera Cumandá; Horacio Quiroga “Short stories”; Eustasio Rivera La vorágine; Pablo Neruda Canto general; and Ernesto Che Guevara Diario de motocicletas, among others.